Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Millipedes of the Edge

How many millipede species do you think live in southern Ohio?  I estimated there were at least 50, maybe even 80 species.  I was incorrect.
Millipedes are long and usually slow.  They are mega-legged armored trains!  Blindly feeling their way through the forest, they decompose leaf litter and use chemical warfare for protection. 
North American giant millipede pushing its way across the leaf litter.

Not to be confused with centipedes, millipedes have 2 pairs of legs per body segment (centipedes have 1 pair).  Millipedes do not bite using venom (centipedes do).  Millipedes eat decaying plants (centipedes are carnivorous).  Do not pick up a centipede or you may receive a painful pinch. 
Here you see a centipede showing its 1 pair of legs per segment. The first pair is adapted as pincers with venom. 

Here a millipede shows its rounder body with 2 pairs of legs per segment.  1st pair are simply legs, not pincers.

Earlier this spring, we hosted a millipede workshop taught by Derek Hennen.  Derek has been re-writing The Millipedes and Centipedes of Ohio.  This publication was printed in 1928 through the Ohio Biological Survey.  He has been traveling the state updating records, adding species, and has spent some time collecting in Adams County.  He was the perfect person to teach this class.

Derek Hennen teaching millipedes to Advanced Naturalist Class.
From the preserve's previous collection, and what the class collected in May, we identified 19 species of millipede with Derek's assistance.  He believed this to be a fair representation for this area, and it is possible to find a few more species on the preserve.  I was shocked to learn that this is all the taxa we should have in the area.  It turns out, the Appalachian Mountains are the epicenter of millipede diversity in the country.  The further you travel away from the mountains, the fewer species you will find.  Since we are literally on the edge of the Appalachian uplift, but not in the mountains, we have fair diversity.  The Appalachians, where Derek studies, has had new species discoveries, and house some endemic species living in small areas of the mountains.

Narceus americanus annularis, the North American giant millipede

Abacion sp., a common and very smelly millipede when handled.

Oxidus gracilis, the garden millipede is an exotic that can be found in very large numbers.

Pseudopolydesmus serratus, a fairly common millipede.
Here are the millipedes found on the preserve to date:

Abacion magnum
Andrognathus corticarius
Apheloria virginiensis corrugata,  cherry millipede
Blaniulus guttulatus,  spotted snake millipede
Cambala annulata
Cambala minor
Cleidogona sp.
Conotyla sp.
Euryurus leachii
Nannaria terricola
Narceus americanus annularis, North American giant millipede
Ophyiulus pilosus
Oxidus gracilis, garden/greenhouse millipede
Petaserpes cryptocephalus, slug millipede
Pseudopolydesmus serratus
Ptyoiulus impressus
Scytonotus granulatus, granulated millipede
Striaria sp.
Uroblaniulus canadensis

One of the most fascinating parts of millipede life history is the chemistry involved with their protection.  They are not ferocious creatures, they rely on distasteful and sometimes deadly gas exchange to keep predators at bay.  Researchers have discovered many compounds are produced internally, with more yet to be identified.  Even the sweet smelling cherry millipedes are not as pleasant as they smell.  The odor they emit is cyanide.

The sweet smelling cherry millipede, Apheloria virginiensis corrugata.
Some can even release a chemical, staining your hand when they are handled.
Apparently a Narceus did not want to be handled this day.  It oozed a stain out of many pores that discolored my fingers for a week.  Not painful, just colorful.
Euryrurus leachii doesn't produce a good smell, but does produce enough chemicals to positively glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.  This is perhaps another way of warning predators to stay away.
Euryrurus leachii under normal light.

Euryrurus leachii under UV (ultraviolet) light.  Find these under logs with a black light at night.
Photo by Robyn Wright-Strauss
Mating occurs when a male and female find each other, probably through tracking pheromones.  The sexual organs are found between the 2nd and 8th pair or legs, so when they mate, they end up "chest to chest" facing each other.  Eggs will be laid soon after under debris on the forest floor.

Pseudopolydesmus serratus found mating in September.
Chemical warfare used by millipedes, to protect themselves is not fool proof.  One creature adapted to feed on these chemical laden subjects are glow worms.  Beetles in the genus Phengodes are silent assassins of millipedes.  The larva of the beetle sneaks up to the millipede and incredibly knows where to burrow in between the millipedes legs and cut the cord to the nervous system.  This prevents the millipede from using gas to deter the predator.  The glow worm can then dig its way into the millipede, eat it from the inside, and leave behind the exoskeleton.

Not a millipede (notice the 3 pairs of legs), this Phengodes plumosa larva feeds on millipedes.

Glow worm beetle larva bioluminescing (glowing) in the dark.  This millipede hunter produces light!

Glow worm larva sneaking in for the attack on a Narceus americanus.  It is burrowing its way into the center of the millipede.
Enjoy this video of a running millipede being chased by a predator (my camera) until all its legs get tired.  At the end of the video is a cute hatchling of a North American giant millipede.  The baby just hatched out of an egg which was enclosed in feces.  The feces ball, looking like a cocoa puff, is full of nutrients the juvenile eats to begin its life.  

Hopefully people admire the interesting millipedes they come across.  Not only are they a major player in decomposing the debris around us, but they are also interesting and attractive.  Even if their beauty is just a warning to stay away or you will be gassed.  Since their fossil records date back 420 million years, they are quite possibly the first breathing animals on land.  Now that deserves a little respect!
A big thanks to Derek Hennen for making the search for millipedes on our preserve so much fun.

Posted by: Mark Zloba

Wednesday, July 25, 2018

Chuck on a nest

Every now again we accidentally stumble upon a nesting Chuck-will's-widow.  These nests are difficult to come by in Ohio because it is a rare bird in the state.  But the numbers of these birds have been increasing since the 1930's.  On May 24, 2018, I flushed a female Chuck, which flew about 30 feet and landed on a branch, swinging its wings to keep my attention.  From her lift-off spot I found 2 mottled eggs, placed directly on the ground since Chuck's do not build any kind of nest. 
Female Chuck-will's-widow swinging it's wings after leaving the nest to draw my attention to her.
Chuck-will's-widow eggs on the ground.
Since it has been a few years since I have found a Chuck nest, I thought this would be a fun place to set up a game camera.  I went back the next day, took a couple pictures of the Chuck-will's-widow now back on the eggs, then set up a camera facing the bird.
Cell phone picture of a Chuck-will's-widow through a spotting scope.
If all goes well, I should be able to watch these videos and see how long this bird sits on the eggs, how she or he tends to the eggs, when the chicks hatch, and how long they stick around after hatching.  I have now watched the hundreds of videos the camera captured, and am surprised how few interactions occurred with the Chuck on the ground and other animals.  There was one video of an adult and baby Eastern cottontail rabbit hopping by one night, and only one other interaction. An odd event happened with another bird.  Watch the video below of a wild turkey that enters the scene on May 27th, while the Chuck was still sitting on eggs.  The turkey obviously knows the Chuck-will's-widow is there.  

The wild turkey circled the motionless Chuck for 10 minutes and was not threatened by the bird on the ground.  I believe it was trying to make the adult Chuck flush.  Who knows what would have happened next.  Would a wild turkey eat those Chuck eggs??
I set up the camera on the 25th of May.  Turkey visited on the 27th.
On May 30th, there were no videos taken, and the first chicks were viewed on the 31st, so I believe they hatched out on May 30th.  This was 7 days after the eggs were discovered. 
Over the next 7 days, the chicks are fed in evening after dark, and early morning before the sun comes up.  Interestingly, both male and female Chuck's tend to the chicks.  This video below shows interactions of both adults and the tiny chicks on the ground.  Most of the video is in the dark, but if you watch the middle of the video, you can see the small chicks feeding from the adults

June 7th reveals last video of a chick hopping away, and there are no more videos of the birds.  The birds were still in the vicinity when I picked up the camera on June 11th.  The adult was making a guttural call which gave away the location of the birds. 
So the female sits on the eggs for at least 7 days, and the male and female feed the chicks for another 7 days before walking away from the nest (if you want to call it a nest). 
Two days after the birds left, I started getting videos of raccoons and squirrels walking by.  Odd that I never saw them enter the scene while the bird was on chicks, but it is possible the adult flew away from the chicks while a potential predator was approaching to lure it away, just as it did when I first approached.
Posted by: Mark Zloba 

Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Counting the Birds of Spring

Every year, preserve staff ventures out, in and around the Edge of Appalachia Preserve System to count as many bird species seen and heard in 24 hours.  It is part record-keeping, education, staff development and most importantly, competition.  Not only competition amongst ourselves to find as many birds as years past, but also competition with the birds themselves.  It is a sport to "hunt" down and view these animals that travel long distances, especially the migrating ones that have seasonal arrival dates.  The puzzle is to know where they are and when they will arrive.
Rose-breasted grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)

So we pick a date in May when some of the wintering birds might still be around, and when breeding birds have returned, and sporadic visitors are migrating through.  This year, we set out on the afternoon on May 9 to the afternoon of the 10th.  Within this 24 hours, four staff members found 135 species.  Not a bad, as our total number has ranged between 125 and 142 in the past 20 years.

Getting out and searching for the birds awards us with great looks at many of the species, like this Baltimore oriole which was feeding on something in the seed clusters of a Box Elder tree.
Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)

Many migrating warblers are difficult to see.  Sometimes we just hear their songs and know they are here, but it takes some work to see a 3 inch bird at the top of an oak tree with leaves.  This year, Cape May warblers seemed to be plentiful, even hanging around long enough to get their pictures taken.
Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina)

This Northern parula is a breeding warbler species on the preserve and decided to catch a Mayfly and eat it in front of me.
Northern Parula (Setophaga Americana)

Sitting still and listening to their songs and calls is the best way to observe bird diversity in your area.  It never fails, when sitting still for a while, some birds will show up and put on a good show right in front of you like these cedar waxwings did along the Ohio river floodplain.
Cedar waxwing's (Bombycilla cedrorum)

Just outside the preserves western boundary lays a grassy field that was loud with the songs of Dickcissel's.  This spot produced other great grassland birds like grasshopper sparrows, bobolinks and blue grosbeaks.
Dickcissel (Spiza Americana)

Luckily, this Yellow-billed cuckoo arrived the day we were counting birds.  It was the first one we had heard or seen so far in 2018.
Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)

A very loud migrant warbler called the Tennessee warbler is very easy to hear, but very hard to see.  So we were lucky to have one low enough to photograph.
Tennessee warbler (Leiothlypis peregrina)

Same thing goes with the hooded warbler seen below.  I hear them all over the forests of the preserve, but to find one in the open is rare.
Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)

Of course, and easy way to find some of the birds is to simply watch feeders as we drive around the county.  Although we had some fly-by Ruby-throated hummingbirds on our count, this male was easy to watch at one of our feeders.
Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)

Early in the morning, on ridge tops you will hear the song of the scarlet tanager. And if you have some patience, one will usually appear and sit still for good looks at its stunning scarlet feathers.
Scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea)

Of course we search into the night to find evening birds like Chuck-wills-widow's, woodcocks and owls.  This Eastern screech owl almost landed on my head after whistling once imitating its call.
Eastern screech owl (Megascops asio)

The majority of the preserve is  forested, with bordering successional shrub-land and old fields.  This habitat, along with the riparian forests of Ohio Brush Creek is a wonderful place to provide refuge for migrating bird stopovers, and suitable landscape for most of Ohio's breeding terrestrial birds.
The Edge of Appalachia Preserve System has been a birding destination for many years, and pride's itself as an important bird conservation area in Ohio.

Posted by: Mark Zloba

Saturday, April 28, 2018

Earthsnakes around Earth Day

The un-glaciated forests of the Edge of Appalachia Preserve System in southern Ohio.

The southern Ohio hills of Adams County, with its large tracts of continuous forests, are the perfect place to find one of the most secretive snakes in the Eastern U.S.  Spending most of its life under the leaf litter of our forests floor, the Eastern Smooth Earthsnake Virginia valeriae valeriae, lurks slowly while searching and tasting for its primary food, earthworms.

This 200mm Eastern Smooth Earthsnake Virginia v. valeriae, was found around Earth Day of 2018.

Every April around Earth Day, I am reminded that it is time to search for these elusive snakes.  Especially since heavy rains on warm nights seem to be a perfect time for these snakes to come out of their hibernating spots to hunt worms.  Sometimes you notice earthworms exposed on the surface after heavy rainfalls, and so do Eastern Smooth Earthsnakes.  Now that it's warm and the ground is soaking,  this is a perfect time of year to go on a snake hunt.  But even though the conditions are favorable most people have never seen, nor will ever see, this snake. 

Eastern Smooth Earthsnake's are non-descript snakes that hide under debris, rarely venturing out in the open.

Earthsnakes have only been found in 12 of Ohio’s unglaciated counties: Adams, Athens, Clermont (1 record), Jackson, Pike, Scioto, Lawrence, Muskingum, (1 record), Ross, Hocking, Vinton and Gallia.  Many of these counties have very few records of the snake making this one of the least encountered snakes in the state. The lack of encounters are due to its secretive habits.  Earthsnakes could be incredibly common in the unglaciated forests of Ohio, but it’s simply just not that easy to find.  Its small size and lack of colorful markings already make it hard to detect, not to mention it prefers to be hidden under debris.  In fact, I have never found one of these snakes unless it was under some sort of cover.  And in most cases under coverboards that I have intentionally left out to survey reptiles.
This coverboard (roofing tin) used to survey reptiles in the forest produced an Earthsnake.
This snake can be grey or brownish dorsally with no markings, except possible pairs of faint dark specks running down its back.  The back color fades gradually into a pale color on the belly. It rarely reaches more than 11 inches in total length.

Notice the white chin and black longitudinal dots running down the back of this Eastern Smooth Earthsnake.

The Eastern Wormsnake Carphophis amoenus, is a similar species which also fits this profile but they have a distinct coloration change on the sides of their body between their brown back and pinkish belly, and lack any black dots on their backs.  The wormsnake's eyes appear tiny on its small head.  Every other small snake in Ohio forests have some color or markings on them that gives away their identification.
Do not confuse with the Eastern Wormsnake, notice the drastic color change between the back and belly of the snake and no black spots.

Little is known about the life history of these snakes since so few are found in Ohio (fewer than 100 Ohio records in museums).  In most states they breed in late spring/early summer and give live birth in late summer.  Since they are live birthers (viviparous), you won’t encounter eggs like some other snakes.  Knowing exactly when a female gives birth is difficult and coming across new born (neonate) Earthsnakes could prove even more onerous.

The Eastern Smooth Earthsnake spends so much of its life underground that very little is known about its habits.

Rare photo of an Earthsnake feeding on Lumbricus rubellus. Earthworms are their primary diet.
Researching this snake in captivity is difficult as it has a tendency to burrow, remaining hidden and rarely eating.  But this spring I was lucky enough to observe an Earthsnake bite, hold, then swallow a large earthworm. 
Earthsnakes are harmless to people and most other animals--except earthworms, or soft-bodied arthropods which they can eat.  It will rarely attempt to bite, if at all, and is not known for leaving a musk smell on your hands after handling. 

10 year old Lexi fearlessly holds an Earthsnake while it coils into a pretzel shape.  This is the snake's average size.
Many Earthsnakes I have encountered freeze in place to remain undetected.  It seems they stay rigid and motionless to appear lifeless like a stick or a root.  This video, although shaky and blurry (apologies if you get sea sick), showcases an Earthsnake's reluctance to move while I harass it, relying on crypsis rather than retreat.

Earth Day seems to be a time when folks try to get outside and enjoy their natural surroundings.  As you are out this spring keep an eye on the forest floor for this small snake.  It may be coiled like a pretzel under some leaves, or under a piece of debris.  It would be nice to increase the amount of photo records for this snake and expand its range in the state. These snakes are surely way more common than Ohio’s herpetologists are aware.  The best way to find them is to place a piece of roofing tin, metal, or wood on the edge of the forest and check underneath it on warm days.  If you find what appears to be an Eastern Smooth Earthsnake in Ohio, take a picture and send it me at
Posted by: Mark Zloba

Monday, April 23, 2018

Finally feels like spring in 2018

Ahh spring!  Spring of 2018 has had a rough start.  One nice warm day gets the wildflowers going then three cold days set everything back.  So things are coming along...just slower than usual.  I finally had a sunny day to take a few minutes to look for some bees.  My main goal was to find oligolectic bees associated with particular plants (see past post on oligolectic bees). 
I stopped at a big tree plum, Prunus mexicana, since it was full of flowers and many insects flying around.  Below are some interesting finds beginning with the emerald green colored Augochlora bee.

A bee, Augochlora sp. on big tree plum.

Many bees were visiting the sweet smelling flowers of the big tree plum.  It seemed to be a favorite of many bees, flies and butterflies.  Even the massive (comparatively) Eastern carpenter bee was enjoying this nectar.

Carpenter bee, Xylocopa sp., also enjoying the nectar of the big tree plum.

At last, I spotted what I believe to be an long-horned bee, Eucerni tribe, or Osmia sp.on this plant (to be determined).  Many of the Eucerna and Osmia genera are bees that come out in spring.

A bee, possible Eucerna sp. (to be determined) on big tree plum.

While photographing these bees I noticed a possible Andrena species posed in an unusual position and remaining uncharacteristically still.

Possible Andrena bee sitting in a peculiar position.

I figured something else must be keeping this bee in such a position, and sure enough there was.  Blending in to the pinkish base of the flowers was an ambush bug, Phymata sp.  This ambush bug, a kind of assassin bug, hides among flowers and grabs prey as it flies in.  It then sticks its long straw-like mouthpart (proboscis) into the exoskeleton of the prey and sucks out the juicy innards.

Ambush bug feeding on bee.  Notice the yellowish  proboscis mouth part holding up the bee.

While watching this spring drama I noticed a bee flying to a common blue violet, Viola sororia, at my feet. I remembered there was an Andrena violae which only feeds or collects pollen on violets.  I do not have this bee listed for the preserve, and hopefully after tedious microscopic keying of bee body parts, this will be a new species for the preserve.

Possible Andrena violae, oligolectic on Violets.

While laying on the ground photographing the bees visiting Violets I noticed an odd white shape in the grass.  I had to get real close for my brain to explain to my eyes what I was seeing.  The visual mystery was two falcate orangetips mating on the top of a bittercress.  If you look closely you can see the two touching abdomen tips between their wings.  When finished mating the female will lay her eggs on this cress, or another plant of the mustard family, which their caterpillar feeds upon.

Mating falcate orangetips, Anthocharis midea annikae.  You can see the hook to the tip of the wing (falcate).

When not mating, these butterflies rarely sit still very long.  They seem to hit flowers quickly for a taste and move right along.  It was tough to find a male falcate orangetip that would sit still long enough to get a picture of its orange patch.  But after much crawling around on hands and knees one finally sat still long enough to get a shot.  The females lack the orange coloration on the dorsal side of the forewing.

A male falcate orangetip, displaying why the name fits.
It's wonderful how a twenty minute search for bees on a flowering tree can produce many interesting encounters, Ahh spring!

Posted by: Mark Zloba

Thursday, March 29, 2018

Spring 2018 Eulett After Hours Programs

Get ready for a brand new line-up of interesting and informative talks courtesy of our Eulett After Hours program! Check out the schedule and topics here!

Friday, March 23, 2018


I think many people believe that we already know what lives on this planet, and there is not much more to discover.  But there are still some curious explorers in this country that are making new discoveries, more than one could imagine.  Yes, we have names on many of the trees and birds and mammals found around the world.  But many tiny creatures, some in your own backyards, are waiting to be discovered.  Two of these taxonomic pioneers, Charley Eiseman and Julia Blyth, recently made a trip to the Edge of Appalachia to teach a class on leafminers.  Leafminers are not people that dig in the earth to find leaves, but rather tiny insects which, in the larval stage, mine (eat) through the fleshy inner cell layer of leaves.  Just as Lewis and Clark traveled the country keeping notes on new plants and animals they witnessed, Charley and Julia travel across this country's backyards and forests to discover new insect tunnels on leaves made by creatures still un-described in science.

Charley Eiseman showing the class an insect larva eating the inner portion of a leaf.

Have you ever seen a leafminer?  I bet you have.  Look closely at leaves on almost any tree, and you will probably find one.  Although you may not see the insect, the trail it leaves by tunneling through and eating the innards is evidence of its existence. These tiny insects can be larval moths, flies, beetles or even sawflies (wasp-like hymenopterans).  They have utilized the niche of the tiny space within the mesophyll of a leaf to eat, grow and presumably stay safe from predation.  But as in all things in nature, nothing is safe.  Many predators have honed in on these hiding insects and eat them. Parasitoids, many of which are wasps, can find and lay eggs on these sitting ducks, by piercing the leaf with their ovipositors. 

A tunnel mine of a moth, Phyllocnistis populiella.  Notice the dark line of droppings left behind in the tunnel.

A moth, Stigmella intermedia, on sumac, lays eggs on the leaf surface.  After hatching, the larva starts eating and you can see the tunnel grow wider as the larva grows until exiting the tunnel after pupation.
Enjoy this short video of a beetle larva feeding on the inner layer of an oak leaf.

Charley and Julia have keen eyes and did not have to walk far from the building before finding leaves that bear the mark of a leafminer.  They would find splotch mines or tunnel mines on grasses, tree leaves or any herbaceous plant.  One species of beetle that feeds on Virginia Creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, was new to science a few years back.  This weevil is named Orchestomerus eisemani.  Eisemani of course, from Eiseman because Charley discovered this new species.  When they find a mine on a plant they have not seen before, they will take the plant home and wait for the critter creating the mine to pupate.  At that point they can identify the adult and record the culprit.

Charley Eiseman holding the leaf of Virginia Creeper with the mine of Orchestomerus eisemani 
Charley and Julia recording data of the mines collected during the class.
Within two days of our class, Charley and Julia had collected, identified and pressed the plants of over 100 specimens containing at least 80 species of leafminers.  All of these insects were new species additions for the Edge preserve collection.  Charley is working on keys to identify the leafminers.  Knowing the shape and size of the tunnel on specific plants can give you clues as to the species that created it.  So you may never see an adult Agromyza ambrosivora fly, but you can identify the mine on the leaf of an Ambrosia plant.  These leaves have been mounted and housed in the Eulett Center herbarium for reference. 
A few of the mounted specimens kept for reference.
Following are some examples of leafmines showcasing the artistic blotches and squiggly lines helpful for identification.
A moth, Astrotischeria astericola on aster
A fly, Aulagromyza orbitalis on Orange-fruited horse gentian,  Triosteum aurantiacum.
A moth, Cameraria guttifinitella on Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans.
A moth, Coptotriche fuscomarginella on Black oak, Quercus velutina.
A moth, Ectoedemia platanella on Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis.
A fly, Liriomyza eupatoriella on white snakeroot, Ageratina altissima.
A fly, Liriomyza sp. on Ironweed, Vernonia.
A moth, Parectopa robiniella on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia.
A moth, Phyllocnistis vitifoliella on grape, Vitis sp.

A moth, Stigmella prunifoliella on black cherry, Prunus serotina.

I think it is safe to say that you could count on one hand, if there are any other naturalists in this country that could have identified this many leafminers in such a short time.  They are a great team and have shared with us a whole new world living inside a leaf.  To see more of their work, publications, and blog, and to get information on how to obtain Charley’s new book, Leafminers of North America as well as his last book Tracks and Sign of Insects and Other Invertebrates (co-written with Noah Charney) click on the link here:

Posted by: Mark Zloba